Welcome to the home page of the Noise in Physical Systems (NiPS) Laboratory at the Physics Department of the University of Perugia, Italy.

Our laboratory has a long-standing tradition in studying physical systems in the presence of noise. Our interest ranges from stochastic nonlinear dynamics modelling to thermal noise measurements, from designing nanoscale devices for ICT to probing the fundamental limits in energy dissipation. We are interested in approaching both theoretical and experimental aspects of the research activity.

NiPS Laboratory is also the home of the largest database of vibration time series for energy harvesting applications:

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ICAND 2018 - NiPS presentation on "The cost of remembering"



Aug. 5-9, Maui (USA)

International Conference on Applications in Nonlinear Dynamics (

Luca Gammaitoni presents recent work at NiPS on the Physics of Computing with an invited talk entitled: The Cost of Remembering.

In 1961, Rolf Landauer pointed out that resetting a binary memory requires a minimum energy of kBT ln(2). However, once written, any memory is doomed to loose its content if no action is taken. To avoid memory losses, a refresh procedure is periodically performed. In this talk we present a theoretical and experimental study of sub-kBT system to evaluate the minimum energy required to preserve one bit of information over time. Two main conclusions are drawn:

i) in principle the energetic cost to preserve information for a fixed time duration with a given error probability can be arbitrarily reduced if the refresh procedure is performed often enough;

ii) the Heisenberg uncertainty principle sets an upper bound on the memory lifetime: no memory can last forever.


The Cost of remembering