Publications

New paper from NiPS: Kinetic energy harvesting with bistable oscillators

Kinetic energy harvesting with bistable oscillators

Helios Vocca; Igor Neri; Flavio Travasso; Luca Gammaitoni

Abstract:

The goal of powering small-scale electronic mobile devices with energy harvested from the ambient has been in recent years the subject of a great research effort. It has been observed that the harvesting of kinetic energy present in the form of random vibrations (from non-equilibrium thermal noise up to machine vibrations) is an interesting option due to the almost universal presence of this kind of motion. Present working solutions for vibration energy harvesting are based on oscillating mechanical elements that convert kinetic energy via capacitive, inductive or piezoelectric methods. These oscillators are usually designed to be resonantly tuned to the ambient dominant frequency. However, in most cases the ambient random vibrations have their energy distributed over a wide spectrum of frequencies, being rich especially at low frequency, and frequency tuning is not always possible due to geometrical/dynamical constraints. In this paper we discuss a different method based on the exploitation of the dynamical features of stochastic bistable oscillators employed to model nonlinear piezoelectric harvesters. Such a method is shown to outperform standard linear oscillators and to overcome some of the most severe limitations of present approaches. The digitally simulated output response of a bistable piezoelectric energy harvester to real measured environmental vibrations is presented. The results of the simulations confirm the superior performances of this approach.

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0306261911008932

 

New paper from NiPS: There’s plenty of energy at the bottom

Read the recently published Contemporary Physics introductory review:
 
There’s plenty of energy at the bottom (Micro and nano scale nonlinear noise harvesting)
Luca Gammaitoni
Contemporary Physics Vol  53 (2) Pages 119-135

Abstract:
The future of mobile Information and Communication Technology will be strongly affected by our success in solving the question of how to power very small devices. Ambient energy harvesting has been in recent years the recurring object of a number of research efforts aimed at providing an autonomous solution to the powering of small-scale electronic devices. Among the different solutions, micro scale vibration energy harvesting has played a major role due to the almost universal presence of mechanical vibrations mainly in the form of random fluctuations, i.e. noise. In this paper we briefly discuss the role of micro-energies and the possibility to harvest them by employing nonlinear dynamical systems.

 
If you do not have institutional access to Contemporary Physics, I am pleased to offer you this paper for free, go to www.tandfonline.com/r/noiseharvesting. If you do not have a TandFonline username and password, you can create a personal account simply by registering for free when prompted. Once signed in, you will have access to the paper for 7 days. Free access is only available by using the above URL. This free access offer expires on 31st March 2012.
 
Contemporary Physics presents authoritative, lucid, introductory review articles on important recent developments in physics that can be profitably read by all those who wish to keep abreast of the field, whether they be physicists, physical scientists, engineers, or biological scientists who are employed in higher education, teaching industry, and government. 
 

http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/00107514.2011.647793

New paper from NiPS

Energy dissipation in small-scale shape-change dynamics

L.Gammaitoni

Phys. Rev. E, Volume 85, p.020104 (2012)

Abstract:

Shape is an important feature of physical systems, although very seldom it is addressed in the framework of a quantitative description approach. In this paper we propose to interpret the shape of things as a physical manifestation of the content of information associated with each thing and show that a change of shape in a physical system is necessarily connected with a change of its entropy and thus involves energy. We estimate the amount of energy dissipated during a shape change and propose experimental tests to be performed in nanoscale systems to verify this prediction by measuring the expected dissipation in a few simple cases. Relevant implications in the design of future zero-power logic switches are discussed.

http://link.aps.org/doi/10.1103/PhysRevE.85.020104

file available at: arXiv:1109.3923v2

New paper on Nonlinear sensors from NiPS Lab

 

A new paper on nonlinear sensors in the presence of noise has been published in Physical Review E.

This paper reports about relevant results obtained in a three-year-long work developed at the NiPS Lab during the PhD thesys program of Anna Dari. Anna, after completing her PhD at NiPS, is now at the University of Arizona (US).

Nonlinear sensors: An approach to the residence time detection strategy, A. Dari; L. Bosi; L. Gammaitoni, Physical Review E, 01/2010, Volume 81, Issue 011115, p.10, (2010)

New article on darwin magazine (in Italian)

 

New article from NiPS Laboratory on the Jan-Feb 2010 number of darwin, scientific Italian magazine.

At p. 50 Luca Gammaitoni reviews the "Energy from Noise" topic.

Download the article (in Italian) here: Energia dal rumore

 

New scientific paper on APL from NiPS lab: Nonlinear oscillators for vibration energy harvesting

 

A new paper on energy harvesting has been published by L. Gammaitoni, I. Neri and H. Vocca on Applied Physics Letters (APL 94, 164102, 2009). This paper follows the previous letter on Nonlinear Energy Harvesting (see  F. Cottone, H. Vocca, and L. Gammaitoni, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 080601) and generalizes the results obtained to a wider class of nonlinear oscillators.

 

Whati is the paper about?

The search for solutions in powering small portable electronic devices has been, in recent years, the subject of a relevant scientific and technological effort worldwide.

The powering of remotely distributed wireless micro sensors is a very challenging task due to the fact that the traditional approach based on batteries revealed impracticable for a number of reasons, chief among them the impossibility to replace them once they have exhausted their charge. On the other hand, especially in the case of mobile devices, it is highly desirable to have power sources co-located with the microdevices.

The current solution is to harvest the ambient energy where and when necessary, whether this be electromagnetic (light), thermal or mechanical in nature. Due to the almost ubiquitous presence of ambient kinetic energy, mostly in the form of random vibrations, a significant attention has been devoted to the conversion of mechanical energy into electric power exploiting piezoelectricity, e.m. induction or capacitance variations. In all these cases, the traditional approach is based on the resonant tuning of the mechanical oscillator. However, difficulties arise both because the tuning of the oscillators is constrained by geometrical factors and because the energy spectra of the available vibration is commonly spread in a wide frequency range, with the prevalence of low frequency components.

Recently, at NiPS lab it has been proposed to overcome such limitations by considering nonlinear oscillators instead of linear, i.e. resonant, ones. Specifically, it has been shown that a bistable oscillator (a biased inverted pendulum) can outperform a linear oscillator (simple inverted pendulum) in the presence of a wide spectrum vibration if some bias parameter is optimized.

In this new paper it is shown that these results represent a special case of a more general behavior and that the increased performances of nonlinear oscillators can be found, also in monostable/multistable nonlinear dynamics achievable in a number of different systems and geometries.

 

Download the new paper here: http://www.nipslab.org/node/1703

Nonlinear Energy Harvesting

A new article by the NiPS Lab is out.
The article presents a new technology for improved efficency in energy harvesting.

This new approach is based on the exploitation of nonlinear oscillators and opens up a new scenario in energy harvesting. Ambient energy harvesting has been in recent years the recurring object of a number of research efforts aimed at providing an autonomous solution to the powering of small-scale electronic mobile devices. Among the different solutions, vibration energy harvesting has played a major role due to the almost universal presence of mechanical vibrations.

In a recent research conducted at the Noise in Physical Systems (N.i.P.S) Laboratory at the Physics Department of the University of Perugia (Italy) L. Gammaitoni and his co-workers developed a new method based on the exploitation of the dynamical features of stochastic nonlinear oscillators. They have shown that such a method can outperform standard linear oscillators and overcomes some of the most severe limitations of existing approaches. See our research area for more information. PDF of the article available at: http://www.nipslab.org/files/PhysRevLett_102_080601.pdf

Computational tasks in a noise-triggered artificial neuron node

A new article by the NiPS Lab is out.
The article presents a new nanoscale device aimed at computational tasks much like the standard logic gates NAND and NOR.

It introduces a novel approach based on dynamically modulated bistable switching in resonant tunneling diodes (RTD) with branched drains as nanoelectronic devices, which generate spike-like signal trains efficiently controlled by the electronic environment.
A novel noise-triggered operating scheme as a universal and reconfigurable logic gate is demonstrated and
related to a nonlinear stochastic process. Such a scheme is shown to operate properly in the presence of a significant amount of noise.

 

Article

Noise limited computational speed

Published a new paper from N.i.P.S Laboratory: Noise limited computational speed, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 224104 (2007)

You can download the paper here

Copyright (2007) American Institute of Physics.
This article may be downloaded for personal use only. Any other use requires prior permission of the author and the American Institute of Physics. The article appeared in Applied Physics Letters (Vol.91, Issue 22), and may be found at: URL: http://link.aip.org/link/?APL/91/224104. DOI: 10.1063/1.2817968. the Journal issue's table of contents is available at this link:  http://link.aip.org/link/?APL/91/22/htmltoc

If you want to cite this article, please use the following:

Noise limited computational speed,
L. Gammaitoni, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 224104 (2007)

Low-frequency internal friction in silica glass

Published a new paper from N.i.P.S Laboratory: Low-frequency internal friction in silica glass, EPL 80 50008, 2007

You can download the paper here

If you want to cite this article, please use the following:

Low-frequency internal friction in silica glass, F. Travasso et al 2007 EPL 80 50008

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